CLASSICISM

the best of Classical design






Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are simply objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images."
Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of widely accepted ideal forms. Classicism is a force which is often present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions; however, some periods felt themselves more connected to the classical ideals than others, particularly the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment, and some classicizing movements in Modernism.





The foundations of Classicism are the Six Orders of Architecture as founded on Vitruvian principles.
The orders are the Greek Doric, Greek Ionic, Greek Corinthian, Roman Corinthian, Composite and Tuscan (Roman Doric)

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The Empire style, sometimes considered the second phase of Neoclassicism, is an early-19th-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts followed in Europe and America until around 1830, although in the U. S. it continued in popularity in conservative regions outside the major metropolitan centers well past the mid-nineteenth century.

The style originated in and takes its name from the rule of Napoleon I, known as the First French Empire, where it was intended to idealize Napoleon's leadership and the French state. The style corresponds to the Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Federal style in the United States and to the Regency style in Britain. An earlier phase of the style was called the Adam style in Great Britain and "Louis Seize" or Louis XVI, in France.
Two french architects, Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine, were together the creators of the French Empire style. The two had studied in Rome and in the 1790s became leading furniture designers in Paris, where they received many commissions from Napoleon and other statesmen.
The Empire style was based on aspects of the Roman Empire and its many archaeological treasures which had been rediscovered starting in the 18th century. The preceding Louis XVI and Directoire styles employed straighter, simpler designs in comparison with the Rococo style of the 18th century. Empire designs heavily influenced the American Federal style (such as the United States Capitol building), and both were forms of propaganda through architecture. It was a style of the people, not ostentatious but sober and evenly balanced. The style was considered to have "liberated" and "enlightened" architecture just as Napoleon "liberated" the peoples of Europe with his Napoleonic Code.
The Empire period was popularized by the inventive designs of Percier and Fontaine, Napoleon's architects for Malmaison. The designs drew heavily for inspiration on symbols and ornaments borrowed from the glorious ancient Greek and Roman empires. Buildings typically had simple timber frames and box-like constructions, veneered in expensive mahogany imported from the colonies. Biedermeier furniture also made use of ebony details, originally due to financial constraints. Ormolu details (gilded bronze furniture mounts and embellishments) displayed a high level of craftsmanship.




PERCIER ET FONTAINE




Percier et Fontaine - Napoleon's Throne

Percier and Fontaine was a noted partnership between French architects Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine. Together, Percier and Fontaine were inventors and major proponents of the rich and grand, consciously archaeological versions of neoclassicism we recognize as Directoire style and Empire style.
Following Charles Percier's death in 1838, Fontaine designed a tomb in their characteristic style in the Pere Lachaise Cemetery. Percier and Fontaine had lived together as well as being colleagues. Fontaine married late in life and after his death in 1853 his wife placed his body in the same tomb according to his wishes.





Percier et Fontaine - Napoleon's Throne





 Percier et Fontaine
Throne Room 





 Percier et Fontaine
Bed





Madame Recamier's Bedroom - circa 1798









 Percier et Fontaine
Covered Dish 
gift from Napoleon to his sister Pauline






Empire Style Throne
Italian









Gold and Cameo Tiara - French - Empire Style










Cameo Tiara - made for the Empress Josephine






Neo Classical Bracelet - 1830
Cameo, Human Hair & Gold












Tiara of the Empress Marie-Louise 








Italian Neo-Classical Egyptian Style Brooch












Gold Earings - Carlo Giuliano - 1865





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THOMAS HOPE






Thomas Hope (1769–1831) was influential as a designer, design reformer and collector. A Dutchman, born in Amsterdam, Hope inherited from his family a tradition of collecting as well as vast wealth from the family bank. He was a collector on a grand scale and also an innovative designer of great genius who helped define what we understand as the Regency style.
His extensive Grand Tour travels in Europe, Greece, Turkey and Egypt inspired his interest in antiquities as a source of designs for Regency interiors, furniture and metalwork. He was determined to reform contemporary taste by returning architecture and the arts, including interior design and furniture, to what he conceived as the spirit of classical purity.
In 1799 he bought a house designed by Robert Adam in Duchess Street, Portland Place, London, which he remodelled with a series of themed interiors. The colourful interiors of Duchess Street and of Hope's country house, Deepdene in Surrey, played a unique role in the history of collecting, interior design and display. Both were open to select visitors, but his furniture reached an even wider public through his book, Household Furniture and Interior Decoration. Published in 1807, this book introduced the term 'interior decoration' into the English language.
Hope's influence continued long after his death, partly because of his book.






Thomas Hope - Campaign Stool







Thomas Hope
Pedestal Table





Thomas Hope
Vase






Thomas Hope
Pair of Arm Chairs







Thomas Hope
Campaign Stool






Thomas Hope
Imperial Sofa






Thomas Hope
Crossover Stool






Thomas Hope
Egyptian Sofa






Thomas Hope
Lotus Stool





Thomas Hope
Backless Sofa









Thomas Hope
Ebony and Gilt Sofa









Thomas Hope
Mahogany Greek Revival Chair





Thomas Hope
Arm Chair - 1804






Thomas Hope
Design for an Arm Chair - c. 1800







Thomas Hope
Design for a Bed





Thomas Hope
Mahogany Ebonized Writing Table
circa 1815




Thomas Hope
Ebonised Chair

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Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of Italian Andrea Palladio.
In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.

High neoclassicism was an international movement. Though neoclassical architecture employs the same classical vocabulary as Late Baroque architecture, it tends to emphasize its planar qualities, rather than sculptural volumes.
Projections and recessions and their effects of light and shade are flatter; sculptural bas-reliefs are flatter and tend to be enframed in friezes, tablets or panels. Its clearly articulated individual features are isolated rather than interpenetrating, autonomous and complete in themselves.
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, the works of Leo von Klenze, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, DC in the United States. 








Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death.
In 1754 he left for Rome, spending nearly five years on the continent studying architecture under Charles-Louis Clérisseau and Giovanni Battista Piranesi. On his return to Britain he established a practice in London, where he was joined by his younger brother James.
Here he developed the "Adam Style", and his theory of "movement" in architecture, based on his studies of antiquity and became one of the most successful and fashionable architects in the country.
Adam held the post of Architect of the Kings Works from 1761 to 1769.
Robert Adam was leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death.
He influenced the development of Western architecture, both in Europe and in North America.
Adam was not content with providing houses for his clients but very ready to design the fittings and accessories as well.



Robert Adam - Osterly House
Eagle Sculpture 




Robert Adam - Osterly House
Portico





Robert Adam - Osterly House
Portica Ceiling





Entrance Hall - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763






Main Staircase - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763





State Bedroom - Osterly House
Robert Adam 
c 1763







The Etruscan Room - Osterly House
Robert Adam c 1763










Adam Ceiling - painted by Antonio Zucchi - 1771










Cieling - Headfort House 

Robert Adam









Ceiling Design - Derby House
Robert Adam





 Dining Room at Kedleston Hall 
Robert Adam







Silver Vase - 1770-1771
Robert Adam












Decorated Bench - Benjamin Latrobe





Klismos Chair - Italian - 1820






Armchair 1805





Couch - Alma Tadema










Chair - Alma Tadema












Painted Wooden Stool - Charles Heathcote - 1800








Athenienne - French Empire - 1830







Tripod Torchiere - Antiqued Bronze





Regency Bronzed and Parcel-gilt Bergère Chair











Egyptian Revival Bracelet - French 19th Cent






Egyptian Revival Earings - French 19th Cent






Egyptian Revival Pendanr - French 19th Cent 






Egyptian Revival Pendant





Egyptian Revival porcelain Tête-à-tête - Austria - Vienna - 1794-1809





Emile-Desire Philippe - Egyptian Revival Brooch - French






 French Egyptian Revival - (Early 20th Cent)
Carved Gilt Throne Style Arm Chair 




Italian Neo-Classical Egyptian Style Brooch




Egyptian Revival Clock






Winter Mausoleum - Allegheny Cemetery - Pittsburgh












Sèvres Taza - Egyptian Gazelles - 1843








Sevres Vase - Hard Paste Porcelain & Ormolu - 1827











Brule - Parfum










Etruscan Style Vase - Rome 19th Century












Etruscan vase - Italy circa 1820














Portland Vase - Wedgwood










Wedgewood Vase - Apotheosis of Homer












Wedgwood Jasper Ware Vase - 1885














Wedgewood Vase
Porphyry Glaze and Black Basalt Plinth - 1780








White Marble and Ormolu - Maison Marnyhac - French 19th Cent







Glyptothek
München
Leo von Klenze - 1816 -1830

The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection ofGreek and Roman sculptures, (hence γλυπτο- glypto- "sculpture", from the Greek verb γλύφειν glyphein "to carve").
It was designed by Leo von Klenze in the Neoclassical style, and built from 1816 to 1830.
Today the museum is a part of the Kunstareal.







Propyläen
München
 Leo von Klenze - 1862

The building constructed in Doric order was completed by Leo von Klenze in 1862 and evokes the monumental entrance of the Propylaea for the Athenian Acropolis.
The gate was created as a memorial for the accession to the throne of Otto of Greece, a son of the principal King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
The reliefs and sculptures celebrating the Bavarian prince and the Greek War of Independence were created by Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler.





Ruhmeshalle
München 
 Leo von Klenze






Regensburg Walhalla
 Leo von Klenze 1830 - 1842


The Walhalla temple is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished Germans, famous personalities in German history — politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue".
The hall is housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River, east of Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
The Walhalla temple is named for Valhalla of Norse mythology.
It was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig, who built it upon ascending the throne of Bavaria as King Ludwig I.
Construction took place between 1830 and 1842, under the supervision of architect Leo von Klenze.
The temple displays some 65 plaques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2,000 years of history.






Regensburg Walhalla
Interior





Regensburg Walhalla
Colonade







Altes Museum
Karl Friedrich Schinkel - (1781 - 1841)

The Altes Museum  was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family's art collection.
The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel's career.
Until 1845, it was called the Königliches Museum (Royal Museum).
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781, Neuruppin, Margraviate of Brandenburg – 9 October 1841, Berlin, Province of Brandenburg) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neo-gothic buildings.





Cieling - Palazzo Vecchio - Mantua








Monticello
Thomas Jefferson


Monticello is a National Historic Landmark just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.
It was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia; it is also, at his direction, the site of Jefferson's burial place.
The house, which Jefferson designed, was based on the neoclassical principles described in the books of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.
It is situated on the summit of an 850-foot (260 m)-high peak in the Southwest Mountains south of the Rivanna Gap. Its name comes from the Italian "little mountain."






Washington Capitol
Washington DC

The original design for the capitol was by Thornton, and was later modified by Benjamin Henry Latrobe and then Charles Bulfinch.
The current dome and the House and Senate wings were designed by Thomas U. Walter and August Schoenborn, a German immigrant, and were completed under the supervision of Edward Clark.







Column Bases - Capitol Hill
Washington DC







 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma
Giuseppe Sacconi - 1885

The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) or "Il Vittoriano" is a monument to honour Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy.
It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill.
The monument was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Angelo Zanelli.
It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1935.
The monument, "chopped with terrible brutality into the immensely complicated fabric of the hill", is built of pure white marble from Botticino, Brescia, and features majestic stairways, tall Corinthian columns, fountains, a huge equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas.
The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft).






 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma
Giuseppe Sacconi - 1885






 Vittorio Emanuele II Memorial
Roma





Bank of England
Sir John Soane, RA

Sir John Soane, RA (10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skilful use of light sources.
The influence of his work, coming at the end of the Georgian era, was swamped by the revival styles of the 19th century.
It was not until the late 19th century that the influence of Sir John's architecture was widely felt. His best-known work was the Bank of England, a building which had widespread effect on commercial architecture.







British Museum
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)

Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867) was an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture his best known building in that style is the British Museum, though he also designed using other architectural styles.
The British Museum is Smirke's largest and best known building. In 1820 in his role as architect to the Office of Works Smirke was invited to redesign the Museum, although the complete design dates from 1823, and was for a building surrounding a large central courtyard with a grand south front, given the limited funds the work was divided into phases.
Built of brick the visible facades are cased in Portland stone.
The first part constructed was the east wing the King's Library, started in 1823 this was completed in 1828. The north section of the west wing the Egyptian Galleries followed 1825-34. The north wing housing the library and reading rooms was built 1833-38.
The west wing and south front was built 1842-46.
The main feature of the south front is the great colonnade of forty-four Greek Ionic columns. The columns are forty-five feet high and five feet in diameter, the column capitals are loosely based on the temple of Athena Polias at Priene and the column bases are based on the temple of Dionysus at Teos. At the centre of the colonnade is theoctastyle portico, this is two columns deep, the colonnade continues for three more columns before embracing the two wings to either side.
The major surviving interiors are the entrance hall with the Great Stair to rising to the west, it takes the form of an Imperial staircase, the impressive King's Library built to house 65,000 books.
The only major interior to survive in the north wing is the Arched Room at the west end. The Egyptian Gallery matches the King's Library but is far plainer in decoration.










British Museum
Main Staircase
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)










British Museum
Sir Robert Smirke (1780–1867)







Late Neoclassical Villa - Alexandria - Egypt

The Late classical revival was a world-wide phenomena, as this remarkably pure example of a Greek revival villa from Egypt shows.




Hancock Museun
Newcastle




Port of London Authority Building - 1912
London
Sir Edwin Cooper






National Westminster Bank - 1932

1 Princes Street,

Sir Edwin Cooper






Marylebone Town Hall
London
Sir Edwin Cooper

Following a competition in 1911, Sir Edwin Cooper was commissioned to design the town hall. The building, in Marylebone Road was built 1914-20. The building is faced with Portland stone and is an example of Edwardian Graeco-Roman classicism, with a tower in the style of Christopher Wren and fluted columns






Selfridges - Oxford Street
London
Daniel Burnham

 Selfridges was designed by Daniel Burnham. The London store was built in phases, the first phase consisting only of the nine-and-a-half bays closest to the Duke Street corner.
A scheme to erect a massive tower above the store was never carried out.
Also involved in the design of the store were American architect Francis Swales, who worked on decorative details, and British architects R. Frank Atkinson and Thomas Smith Tait




Crypt of Liverpool Cathedral
Edwin Lutyens

Lutyens was commissioned in 1929 to design a new Roman Catholic cathedral in Liverpool. He planned a vast building of brick and granite, topped with towers and a 510-foot dome, with commissioned sculpture work by Charles Sargeant Jagger and W. C. H. King. Work on this magnificent building started in 1933, but was halted during the Second World War. After the war, the project ended due to a shortage of funding, with only the crypt completed. 





Runneymede Gate House
River Thames
Edwin Lutyens




War Memoria
Edwin Lutyens




BMA House - Tavistock Square
Edwin Lutyens





Duveen Gallery - British Museum

London
John Russell Pope (1874–1937)

Pope also designed the National Gallery in Washington.
The Duveen Gallery was completed in 1939 but, because of damage during the Second World War, it was not opened until 1962.

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REICH ADLER
Albert Speer






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - ENTRANCE - BERLIN
Albert Speer



 






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MARMORGALERIE - BERLIN
Albert Speer



In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler officially assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year.
Hitler commented that Bismarck's Old Chancellery was "fit for a soap company" but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. It nevertheless remained his official residence with its recently refurbished representation rooms on the groundfloor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so called Führerwohnung ("Führer apartment").
Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer's disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which "will make an impression on people".
Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building.
Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock.
In the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmark, well over one billion dollars today.
In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor:
The series of rooms comprising the approach to Hitler's reception gallery were decorated with a rich variety of materials and colours and totalled 220 m (725 ft) in length.
The gallery itself was 145 m (480 ft) long. Hitler's own office was 400 square meters in size.
From the exterior, the chancellery had a stern, authoritarian appearance.
From the Wilhelmplatz, visitors would enter the Chancellery through the Court of Honour (Ehrenhof). The building's main entrance was flanked by two bronze statues by sculptor Arno Breker: "Wehrmacht" and "Partei" ("Armed Forces" and "Party").
Hitler is said to have been greatly impressed by the building and was uncharacteristically effusive with his praise for Speer, lauding the architect as a "genius".
The chancellor's immense study was a particular favourite of the dictator.
The large marble-topped table served as an important part of the Nazi leader's military headquarters, the study being used for military conferences from 1944 on. On the other hand, the Cabinet room was never used for its intended purpose.






NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - MOSAIC HALL - BERLIN
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Mosaic Hall)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer









NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Entrance to Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer









NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Hitler's Study)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Cabinet Room)
Albert Speer








NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Dining Room)
Albert Speer







NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
(Main Entrance)
Albert Speer









MAIN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer










GARDEN FAÇADE - NEUE REICHSKANZEI - BERLIN
Albert Speer







GERMANIA
Albert Speer


Welthauptstadt Germania ("World Capital Germania") refers to the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler's vision for the future of Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Albert Speer, the "first architect of the Third Reich", produced many of the plans for the rebuilt city in his capacity as overseer of the project, only a small portion of which was realized between the years 1937-1943 when construction took place.
Some projects, such as the creation of a great East-West city axis, which included broadening Charlottenburger Chaussee (today Straße des 17. Juni) and placing the Berlin victory column in the center, far away from the Reichstag, where it originally stood, succeeded.
Others, however, such as the creation of the Große Halle (Great Hall), had to be shelved owing to the beginning of war.
A great number of the old buildings in many of the planned construction areas were however demolished before the war and eventually defeat stopped the plans.
The combined name "Welthauptstadt Germania" for the project was coined by Albert Speer in his 1969 memoirs Inside the Third Reich. 










MODELL DER NEUGESTALTUNG - GERMANIA
Albert Speer


According to the records of Hitler's Table Talk of 8 June 1942 Hitler toyed with the idea of renaming the renewed Berlin into 'Germania', in order to give a Greater Germanic world empire a clear central point:
The term Welthauptstadt (World Capital) was already used by Hitler three months prior on the night between the 11th and 12th of March 1942 in the Wolf's Lair:
"Berlin as the World Capital will only be comparable with Ancient Egypt, Babylon, and Rome! What are London and Paris compared to that!"
—Werner Jochmann: Adolf Hitler. Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941–1944, p. 318. Munich, 1980.
The title 'Welthauptstadt' was chosen because it was felt that Berlin's architecture was at that time too provincial and that there was need to put Berlin on a par with and exceed the quality of other world capitals such as London, Paris and especially Rome.







 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer

The sketch of the Volkshalle given by Hitler to Speer shows a traditional gabled pronaos supported by ten columns, a shallow rectangular intermediate block and behind it the domed main building.
However, there was little about Speer's elaboration of the sketch that might be termed Doric, except perhaps for the triglyphs in the entablature, supported by the geminated red granite columns with their Egyptian palm-leaf capitals, previously employed by Speer in the portico outside Hitler's study on the garden side of the new Chancellery (see above).







 GROßE HALLE - GERMANIA
Albert Speer

Speer's Große Halle was to be the capital's most important and impressive building in terms of its size and symbolism. Visually it was to have been the architectural centrepiece of Berlin as the world capital (Welthauptstadt).
Its dimensions were so large that it would have dwarfed every other structure in Berlin, including those on the north-south axis itself.
The oculus of the building's dome, 46 metres (151 ft) in diameter, would have accommodated the entire rotunda of Hadrian's Pantheon and the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.
The dome of the Volkshalle was to rise from a massive granite podium 315 by 315 metres (1,033 × 1,033 ft) and 74 metres (243 ft) high, to a total inclusive height of 290 metres (950 ft). 
The resemblance of the Volkshalle to the Pantheon is far more obvious when their interiors are compared.
The large niche (50 metres high by 28 metres wide) at the north end of the Volkshalle was to be surfaced with gold mosaic and to enclose an eagle 24 metres (79 ft) high, beneath which was situated Hitler's tribunal.
From here he would address 180,000 listeners, some standing in the central round arena, others seated in three concentric tiers of seats crowned by one hundred marble pillars, 24 metres (79 ft) high, which rose to meet the base of the coffered ceiling suspended from steel girders sheathed on the exterior with copper.
The three concentric tiers of seats enclosing a circular arena 140 metres (460 ft) in diameter owe nothing to the Pantheon but resemble the seating arrangements in Ludwig Ruff's Congress Hall at Nuremberg, which was modeled on the Colosseum.
Other features of the Volkshalle's interior are clearly indebted to Hadrian's Pantheon: the coffered dome, the pillared zone, which here is continuous, except where it flanks the huge niche on the north side.
The second zone in the Pantheon, consisting of blind windows with intervening pilasters, is represented in Speer's building by a zone above the pillars consisting of uniform, oblong shallow recesses.
The coffered dome rests on this zone. 
Hitler's aspirations to world domination and the establishment of his New Order, already evident from architectural and decorative features of the new Chancellery, are even more clearly expressed here.
External symbols suggest that the domed hall was where Hitler as cosmocrator (Herr der Welt) would appear before his Herrenvolk: On top of the dome's lantern was an eagle grasping in its claws not the usual swastika but the globe of the Earth (Erdball).
This combination of eagle and ball was well known in imperial Roman iconography, for example, the restored statue of Claudius holding a ball and eagle in his right hand.
The vast dome, on which it rested, as with Hadrian's Pantheon, symbolically represented the vault of the sky spanning Hitler's world empire.
The globe on the dome's lantern was enhanced and emphasized by two monumental sculptures by Breker, each 15 metres high, which flanked the north façade of the building: at its west end Atlas supporting the heavens, at its east end Tellus supporting the Earth.
Both mythological figures were according to Speer, chosen by Hitler himself.








ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer






ZEPPLINFELD
Albert Speer








GERMAN PAVILLION - PARIS
Albert Speer

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   C O N T E N T S




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